在tkinter的两个框架之间切换[英] Switch between two frames in tkinter

本文是小编为大家收集整理的关于在tkinter的两个框架之间切换的处理/解决方法,可以参考本文帮助大家快速定位并解决问题,中文翻译不准确的可切换到English标签页查看源文。

问题描述

我已经用一个漂亮的小 GUI 构建了我的前几个脚本,正如教程向我展示的那样,但它们都没有解决如何处理更复杂的程序.

如果您有一个带有"开始菜单"的东西,对于您的打开屏幕,并且在用户选择后您移动到程序的不同部分并适当地重新绘制屏幕,​​那么这样做的优雅方式是什么?

是否只是 .destroy() '开始菜单'框架,然后创建一个新的,其中填充了另一部分的小部件?并在他们按下返回按钮时反转这个过程?

推荐答案

一种方法是将框架堆叠在一起,然后您可以简单地按照堆叠顺序将一个放在另一个之上.顶部的那个将是可见的.如果所有帧的大小都相同,则此方法效果最佳,但只需稍加工作即可使其适用于任何大小的帧.

注意:为此,页面的所有小部件都必须将该页面(即:self)或后代作为父(或主,取决于您使用的术语)更喜欢).

这里有一个人为的例子来向你展示一般概念:

try:
    import tkinter as tk                # python 3
    from tkinter import font as tkfont  # python 3
except ImportError:
    import Tkinter as tk     # python 2
    import tkFont as tkfont  # python 2

class SampleApp(tk.Tk):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        tk.Tk.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

        self.title_font = tkfont.Font(family='Helvetica', size=18, weight="bold", slant="italic")

        # the container is where we'll stack a bunch of frames
        # on top of each other, then the one we want visible
        # will be raised above the others
        container = tk.Frame(self)
        container.pack(side="top", fill="both", expand=True)
        container.grid_rowconfigure(0, weight=1)
        container.grid_columnconfigure(0, weight=1)

        self.frames = {}
        for F in (StartPage, PageOne, PageTwo):
            page_name = F.__name__
            frame = F(parent=container, controller=self)
            self.frames[page_name] = frame

            # put all of the pages in the same location;
            # the one on the top of the stacking order
            # will be the one that is visible.
            frame.grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")

        self.show_frame("StartPage")

    def show_frame(self, page_name):
        '''Show a frame for the given page name'''
        frame = self.frames[page_name]
        frame.tkraise()


class StartPage(tk.Frame):

    def __init__(self, parent, controller):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, parent)
        self.controller = controller
        label = tk.Label(self, text="This is the start page", font=controller.title_font)
        label.pack(side="top", fill="x", pady=10)

        button1 = tk.Button(self, text="Go to Page One",
                            command=lambda: controller.show_frame("PageOne"))
        button2 = tk.Button(self, text="Go to Page Two",
                            command=lambda: controller.show_frame("PageTwo"))
        button1.pack()
        button2.pack()


class PageOne(tk.Frame):

    def __init__(self, parent, controller):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, parent)
        self.controller = controller
        label = tk.Label(self, text="This is page 1", font=controller.title_font)
        label.pack(side="top", fill="x", pady=10)
        button = tk.Button(self, text="Go to the start page",
                           command=lambda: controller.show_frame("StartPage"))
        button.pack()


class PageTwo(tk.Frame):

    def __init__(self, parent, controller):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, parent)
        self.controller = controller
        label = tk.Label(self, text="This is page 2", font=controller.title_font)
        label.pack(side="top", fill="x", pady=10)
        button = tk.Button(self, text="Go to the start page",
                           command=lambda: controller.show_frame("StartPage"))
        button.pack()


if __name__ == "__main__":
    app = SampleApp()
    app.mainloop()

起始页 第 1 页 page 2

如果您发现在类中创建实例的概念令人困惑,或者如果不同的页面在构建过程中需要不同的参数,您可以显式地分别调用每个类.该循环主要用于说明每个类都是相同的这一点.

例如,要单独创建类,您可以删除循环(for F in (StartPage, ...) 使用:

self.frames["StartPage"] = StartPage(parent=container, controller=self)
self.frames["PageOne"] = PageOne(parent=container, controller=self)
self.frames["PageTwo"] = PageTwo(parent=container, controller=self)

self.frames["StartPage"].grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")
self.frames["PageOne"].grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")
self.frames["PageTwo"].grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")

随着时间的推移,人们使用此代码(或复制此代码的在线教程)作为起点提出了其他问题.您可能想阅读以下问题的答案:

本文地址:https://www.itbaoku.cn/post/2091119.html

问题描述

I have built my first few scripts with a nice little GUI on them, as the tutorials have shown me, but none of them address what to do for a more complex program.

If you have something with a 'start menu', for your opening screen, and upon user selection you move to a different section of the program and redraw the screen appropriately, what is the elegant way of doing this?

Does one just .destroy() the 'start menu' frame and then create a new one filled with the widgets for another part? And reverse this process when they press the back button?

推荐答案

One way is to stack the frames on top of each other, then you can simply raise one above the other in the stacking order. The one on top will be the one that is visible. This works best if all the frames are the same size, but with a little work you can get it to work with any sized frames.

Note: for this to work, all of the widgets for a page must have that page (ie: self) or a descendant as a parent (or master, depending on the terminology you prefer).

Here's a bit of a contrived example to show you the general concept:

try:
    import tkinter as tk                # python 3
    from tkinter import font as tkfont  # python 3
except ImportError:
    import Tkinter as tk     # python 2
    import tkFont as tkfont  # python 2

class SampleApp(tk.Tk):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        tk.Tk.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

        self.title_font = tkfont.Font(family='Helvetica', size=18, weight="bold", slant="italic")

        # the container is where we'll stack a bunch of frames
        # on top of each other, then the one we want visible
        # will be raised above the others
        container = tk.Frame(self)
        container.pack(side="top", fill="both", expand=True)
        container.grid_rowconfigure(0, weight=1)
        container.grid_columnconfigure(0, weight=1)

        self.frames = {}
        for F in (StartPage, PageOne, PageTwo):
            page_name = F.__name__
            frame = F(parent=container, controller=self)
            self.frames[page_name] = frame

            # put all of the pages in the same location;
            # the one on the top of the stacking order
            # will be the one that is visible.
            frame.grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")

        self.show_frame("StartPage")

    def show_frame(self, page_name):
        '''Show a frame for the given page name'''
        frame = self.frames[page_name]
        frame.tkraise()


class StartPage(tk.Frame):

    def __init__(self, parent, controller):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, parent)
        self.controller = controller
        label = tk.Label(self, text="This is the start page", font=controller.title_font)
        label.pack(side="top", fill="x", pady=10)

        button1 = tk.Button(self, text="Go to Page One",
                            command=lambda: controller.show_frame("PageOne"))
        button2 = tk.Button(self, text="Go to Page Two",
                            command=lambda: controller.show_frame("PageTwo"))
        button1.pack()
        button2.pack()


class PageOne(tk.Frame):

    def __init__(self, parent, controller):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, parent)
        self.controller = controller
        label = tk.Label(self, text="This is page 1", font=controller.title_font)
        label.pack(side="top", fill="x", pady=10)
        button = tk.Button(self, text="Go to the start page",
                           command=lambda: controller.show_frame("StartPage"))
        button.pack()


class PageTwo(tk.Frame):

    def __init__(self, parent, controller):
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, parent)
        self.controller = controller
        label = tk.Label(self, text="This is page 2", font=controller.title_font)
        label.pack(side="top", fill="x", pady=10)
        button = tk.Button(self, text="Go to the start page",
                           command=lambda: controller.show_frame("StartPage"))
        button.pack()


if __name__ == "__main__":
    app = SampleApp()
    app.mainloop()

start page page 1 page 2

If you find the concept of creating instance in a class confusing, or if different pages need different arguments during construction, you can explicitly call each class separately. The loop serves mainly to illustrate the point that each class is identical.

For example, to create the classes individually you can remove the loop (for F in (StartPage, ...) with this:

self.frames["StartPage"] = StartPage(parent=container, controller=self)
self.frames["PageOne"] = PageOne(parent=container, controller=self)
self.frames["PageTwo"] = PageTwo(parent=container, controller=self)

self.frames["StartPage"].grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")
self.frames["PageOne"].grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")
self.frames["PageTwo"].grid(row=0, column=0, sticky="nsew")

Over time people have asked other questions using this code (or an online tutorial that copied this code) as a starting point. You might want to read the answers to these questions: