SQLAlchemy JSON为blob/text[英] SQLAlchemy JSON as blob/text

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问题描述

我使用MySQL将JSON作为BLOB/文本存储为Blob/Text.是否有一种简单的方法可以使用python/sqlalchemy转换为dict?

推荐答案

您可以很容易地创建您自己的类型 with sqlalchemy


对于Sqlalchemy版本> = 0.7,请查看 Yogesh的答案下面


import jsonpickle
import sqlalchemy.types as types

class JsonType(types.MutableType, types.TypeDecorator):    
    impl = types.Unicode

    def process_bind_param(self, value, engine):
        return unicode(jsonpickle.encode(value))

    def process_result_value(self, value, engine):
        if value:
            return jsonpickle.decode(value)
        else:
            # default can also be a list
            return {}

当您定义表格时可以使用(示例使用Elixir):

from elixir import *
class MyTable(Entity):
    using_options(tablename='my_table')
    foo = Field(String, primary_key=True)
    content = Field(JsonType())
    active = Field(Boolean, default=True)

您也可以将其他JSON Serialiser用于jsonpickle.

其他推荐答案

我认为Sqlalchemy Docs的JSON示例也值得一提:

/en/13/core/custom_types.html#marshal-json-instrings

但是,我认为可以改善对空和空字符串的严格程度:

class JSONEncodedDict(TypeDecorator):
    impl = VARCHAR

    def process_bind_param(self, value, dialect):
        if value is None:
            return None
        return json.dumps(value, use_decimal=True)

    def process_result_value(self, value, dialect):
        if not value:
            return None
        return json.loads(value, use_decimal=True)

其他推荐答案

sqlalchemy.types.MutableType已被弃用(v0.7开始),文档建议使用sqlalchemy.ext.mutable.

我找到了一个 git gist ://gist.github.com/dbarnett" rel =" noreferrer"> dbarnett 我已经测试了我的用法.到目前为止,它的词典和列表都很好.

在下面粘贴后代:

import simplejson
import sqlalchemy
from sqlalchemy import String
from sqlalchemy.ext.mutable import Mutable

class JSONEncodedObj(sqlalchemy.types.TypeDecorator):
    """Represents an immutable structure as a json-encoded string."""

    impl = String

    def process_bind_param(self, value, dialect):
        if value is not None:
            value = simplejson.dumps(value)
        return value

    def process_result_value(self, value, dialect):
        if value is not None:
            value = simplejson.loads(value)
        return value

class MutationObj(Mutable):
    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        if isinstance(value, dict) and not isinstance(value, MutationDict):
            return MutationDict.coerce(key, value)
        if isinstance(value, list) and not isinstance(value, MutationList):
            return MutationList.coerce(key, value)
        return value

    @classmethod
    def _listen_on_attribute(cls, attribute, coerce, parent_cls):
        key = attribute.key
        if parent_cls is not attribute.class_:
            return

        # rely on "propagate" here
        parent_cls = attribute.class_

        def load(state, *args):
            val = state.dict.get(key, None)
            if coerce:
                val = cls.coerce(key, val)
                state.dict[key] = val
            if isinstance(val, cls):
                val._parents[state.obj()] = key

        def set(target, value, oldvalue, initiator):
            if not isinstance(value, cls):
                value = cls.coerce(key, value)
            if isinstance(value, cls):
                value._parents[target.obj()] = key
            if isinstance(oldvalue, cls):
                oldvalue._parents.pop(target.obj(), None)
            return value

        def pickle(state, state_dict):
            val = state.dict.get(key, None)
            if isinstance(val, cls):
                if 'ext.mutable.values' not in state_dict:
                    state_dict['ext.mutable.values'] = []
                state_dict['ext.mutable.values'].append(val)

        def unpickle(state, state_dict):
            if 'ext.mutable.values' in state_dict:
                for val in state_dict['ext.mutable.values']:
                    val._parents[state.obj()] = key

        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'load', load, raw=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'refresh', load, raw=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(attribute, 'set', set, raw=True, retval=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'pickle', pickle, raw=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'unpickle', unpickle, raw=True, propagate=True)

class MutationDict(MutationObj, dict):
    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        """Convert plain dictionary to MutationDict"""
        self = MutationDict((k,MutationObj.coerce(key,v)) for (k,v) in value.items())
        self._key = key
        return self

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        dict.__setitem__(self, key, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def __delitem__(self, key):
        dict.__delitem__(self, key)
        self.changed()

class MutationList(MutationObj, list):
    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        """Convert plain list to MutationList"""
        self = MutationList((MutationObj.coerce(key, v) for v in value))
        self._key = key
        return self

    def __setitem__(self, idx, value):
        list.__setitem__(self, idx, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def __setslice__(self, start, stop, values):
        list.__setslice__(self, start, stop, (MutationObj.coerce(self._key, v) for v in values))
        self.changed()

    def __delitem__(self, idx):
        list.__delitem__(self, idx)
        self.changed()

    def __delslice__(self, start, stop):
        list.__delslice__(self, start, stop)
        self.changed()

    def append(self, value):
        list.append(self, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def insert(self, idx, value):
        list.insert(self, idx, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def extend(self, values):
        list.extend(self, (MutationObj.coerce(self._key, v) for v in values))
        self.changed()

    def pop(self, *args, **kw):
        value = list.pop(self, *args, **kw)
        self.changed()
        return value

    def remove(self, value):
        list.remove(self, value)
        self.changed()

def JSONAlchemy(sqltype):
    """A type to encode/decode JSON on the fly

    sqltype is the string type for the underlying DB column.

    You can use it like:
    Column(JSONAlchemy(Text(600)))
    """
    class _JSONEncodedObj(JSONEncodedObj):
        impl = sqltype
    return MutationObj.as_mutable(_JSONEncodedObj)

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问题描述

I'm storing JSON down as blob/text in a column using MySQL. Is there a simple way to convert this into a dict using python/SQLAlchemy?

推荐答案

You can very easily create your own type with SQLAlchemy


For SQLAlchemy versions >= 0.7, check out Yogesh's answer below


import jsonpickle
import sqlalchemy.types as types

class JsonType(types.MutableType, types.TypeDecorator):    
    impl = types.Unicode

    def process_bind_param(self, value, engine):
        return unicode(jsonpickle.encode(value))

    def process_result_value(self, value, engine):
        if value:
            return jsonpickle.decode(value)
        else:
            # default can also be a list
            return {}

This can be used when you are defining your tables (example uses elixir):

from elixir import *
class MyTable(Entity):
    using_options(tablename='my_table')
    foo = Field(String, primary_key=True)
    content = Field(JsonType())
    active = Field(Boolean, default=True)

You can also use a different json serialiser to jsonpickle.

其他推荐答案

I think the JSON example from the SQLAlchemy docs is also worth mentioning:

https://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/13/core/custom_types.html#marshal-json-strings

However, I think it can be improved to be less strict regarding NULL and empty strings:

class JSONEncodedDict(TypeDecorator):
    impl = VARCHAR

    def process_bind_param(self, value, dialect):
        if value is None:
            return None
        return json.dumps(value, use_decimal=True)

    def process_result_value(self, value, dialect):
        if not value:
            return None
        return json.loads(value, use_decimal=True)

其他推荐答案

sqlalchemy.types.MutableType has been deprecated (v0.7 onward), the documentation recommends using sqlalchemy.ext.mutable instead.

I found a Git gist by dbarnett that I have tested for my usage. It has worked well so far, for both dictionary and lists.

Pasting below for posterity:

import simplejson
import sqlalchemy
from sqlalchemy import String
from sqlalchemy.ext.mutable import Mutable

class JSONEncodedObj(sqlalchemy.types.TypeDecorator):
    """Represents an immutable structure as a json-encoded string."""

    impl = String

    def process_bind_param(self, value, dialect):
        if value is not None:
            value = simplejson.dumps(value)
        return value

    def process_result_value(self, value, dialect):
        if value is not None:
            value = simplejson.loads(value)
        return value

class MutationObj(Mutable):
    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        if isinstance(value, dict) and not isinstance(value, MutationDict):
            return MutationDict.coerce(key, value)
        if isinstance(value, list) and not isinstance(value, MutationList):
            return MutationList.coerce(key, value)
        return value

    @classmethod
    def _listen_on_attribute(cls, attribute, coerce, parent_cls):
        key = attribute.key
        if parent_cls is not attribute.class_:
            return

        # rely on "propagate" here
        parent_cls = attribute.class_

        def load(state, *args):
            val = state.dict.get(key, None)
            if coerce:
                val = cls.coerce(key, val)
                state.dict[key] = val
            if isinstance(val, cls):
                val._parents[state.obj()] = key

        def set(target, value, oldvalue, initiator):
            if not isinstance(value, cls):
                value = cls.coerce(key, value)
            if isinstance(value, cls):
                value._parents[target.obj()] = key
            if isinstance(oldvalue, cls):
                oldvalue._parents.pop(target.obj(), None)
            return value

        def pickle(state, state_dict):
            val = state.dict.get(key, None)
            if isinstance(val, cls):
                if 'ext.mutable.values' not in state_dict:
                    state_dict['ext.mutable.values'] = []
                state_dict['ext.mutable.values'].append(val)

        def unpickle(state, state_dict):
            if 'ext.mutable.values' in state_dict:
                for val in state_dict['ext.mutable.values']:
                    val._parents[state.obj()] = key

        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'load', load, raw=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'refresh', load, raw=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(attribute, 'set', set, raw=True, retval=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'pickle', pickle, raw=True, propagate=True)
        sqlalchemy.event.listen(parent_cls, 'unpickle', unpickle, raw=True, propagate=True)

class MutationDict(MutationObj, dict):
    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        """Convert plain dictionary to MutationDict"""
        self = MutationDict((k,MutationObj.coerce(key,v)) for (k,v) in value.items())
        self._key = key
        return self

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        dict.__setitem__(self, key, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def __delitem__(self, key):
        dict.__delitem__(self, key)
        self.changed()

class MutationList(MutationObj, list):
    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        """Convert plain list to MutationList"""
        self = MutationList((MutationObj.coerce(key, v) for v in value))
        self._key = key
        return self

    def __setitem__(self, idx, value):
        list.__setitem__(self, idx, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def __setslice__(self, start, stop, values):
        list.__setslice__(self, start, stop, (MutationObj.coerce(self._key, v) for v in values))
        self.changed()

    def __delitem__(self, idx):
        list.__delitem__(self, idx)
        self.changed()

    def __delslice__(self, start, stop):
        list.__delslice__(self, start, stop)
        self.changed()

    def append(self, value):
        list.append(self, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def insert(self, idx, value):
        list.insert(self, idx, MutationObj.coerce(self._key, value))
        self.changed()

    def extend(self, values):
        list.extend(self, (MutationObj.coerce(self._key, v) for v in values))
        self.changed()

    def pop(self, *args, **kw):
        value = list.pop(self, *args, **kw)
        self.changed()
        return value

    def remove(self, value):
        list.remove(self, value)
        self.changed()

def JSONAlchemy(sqltype):
    """A type to encode/decode JSON on the fly

    sqltype is the string type for the underlying DB column.

    You can use it like:
    Column(JSONAlchemy(Text(600)))
    """
    class _JSONEncodedObj(JSONEncodedObj):
        impl = sqltype
    return MutationObj.as_mutable(_JSONEncodedObj)