使用sqlalchemy的声明式ORM扩展时的多列索引[英] Multiple columns index when using the declarative ORM extension of sqlalchemy

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问题描述

根据文档以及<< C0>类,我们应该使用类sqlalchemy.schema.Index指定包含多个列的索引.

但是,该示例通过直接使用这样的表对象显示了如何做到这一点:

meta = MetaData()
mytable = Table('mytable', meta,
    # an indexed column, with index "ix_mytable_col1"
    Column('col1', Integer, index=True),

    # a uniquely indexed column with index "ix_mytable_col2"
    Column('col2', Integer, index=True, unique=True),

    Column('col3', Integer),
    Column('col4', Integer),

    Column('col5', Integer),
    Column('col6', Integer),
    )

# place an index on col3, col4
Index('idx_col34', mytable.c.col3, mytable.c.col4)

如果我们使用声明性ORM扩展名,我们应该如何做?

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, , primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32))
    b = Column(String(32))

我想要" A"和" B"列上的索引.

推荐答案

这些只是Column对象,index = true标志正常工作:

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32), index=True)
    b = Column(String(32), index=True)

如果您想要一个复合索引,则像往常一样在这里再次存在Table,您只是不必声明它,一切都相同(请确保您在宣言A.A的最新0.6或0.7处班级声明完成后要解释为Column的包装器):

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32))
    b = Column(String(32))

Index('my_index', A.a, A.b)

在0.7中,Index也可以在Table参数中,该论点是通过__table_args__:

通过声明性的.
class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32))
    b = Column(String(32))
    __table_args__ = (Index('my_index', "a", "b"), )

其他推荐答案

完成 @zzzeek的答案.

如果您想添加带有desc的复合索引并使用可以按以下方式执行的ORM声明方法.

此外,我正在努力挣扎 a> sqlalchemy的文档,试图弄清楚如何替换mytable.c.somecol.

from sqlalchemy import Index

Index('someindex', mytable.c.somecol.desc())

我们可以使用模型属性并在其上调用.desc():

from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy

db = SQLAlchemy()

class GpsReport(db.Model):
    __tablename__ = 'gps_report'

    id = db.Column(db.Integer, db.Sequence('gps_report_id_seq'), nullable=False, autoincrement=True, server_default=db.text("nextval('gps_report_id_seq'::regclass)"))

    timestamp = db.Column(db.DateTime, nullable=False, primary_key=True)

    device_id = db.Column(db.Integer, db.ForeignKey('device.id'), primary_key=True, autoincrement=False)
    device = db.relationship("Device", back_populates="gps_reports")


    # Indexes

    __table_args__ = (
        db.Index('gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx', timestamp.desc(), device_id),
    )

如果您使用Alembic,我正在使用烧瓶移民,它会生成类似的东西:

from alembic import op  
import sqlalchemy as sa
# Added manually this import
from sqlalchemy.schema import Sequence, CreateSequence


def upgrade():
    # ### commands auto generated by Alembic - please adjust! ###
    # Manually added the Sequence creation
    op.execute(CreateSequence(Sequence('gps_report_id_seq')))

    op.create_table('gps_report',
    sa.Column('id', sa.Integer(), server_default=sa.text("nextval('gps_report_id_seq'::regclass)"), nullable=False),
    sa.Column('timestamp', sa.DateTime(), nullable=False))
    sa.Column('device_id', sa.Integer(), autoincrement=False, nullable=False),
    op.create_index('gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx', 'gps_report', [sa.text('timestamp DESC'), 'device_id'], unique=False)


def downgrade():
    # ### commands auto generated by Alembic - please adjust! ###
    op.drop_index('gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx', table_name='gps_report')
    op.drop_table('gps_report')

    # Manually added the Sequence removal
    op.execute(sa.schema.DropSequence(sa.Sequence('gps_report_id_seq'))) 
    # ### end Alembic commands ###

最后,您应该在PostgreSQL数据库中有下表和索引:

psql> \d gps_report;
                                           Table "public.gps_report"
     Column      |            Type             | Collation | Nullable |                Default                 
-----------------+-----------------------------+-----------+----------+----------------------------------------
 id              | integer                     |           | not null | nextval('gps_report_id_seq'::regclass)
 timestamp       | timestamp without time zone |           | not null | 
 device_id       | integer                     |           | not null | 
Indexes:
    "gps_report_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree ("timestamp", device_id)
    "gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx" btree ("timestamp" DESC, device_id)
Foreign-key constraints:
    "gps_report_device_id_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (device_id) REFERENCES device(id)

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问题描述

According to the documentation and the comments in the sqlalchemy.Column class, we should use the class sqlalchemy.schema.Index to specify an index that contains multiple columns.

However, the example shows how to do it by directly using the Table object like this:

meta = MetaData()
mytable = Table('mytable', meta,
    # an indexed column, with index "ix_mytable_col1"
    Column('col1', Integer, index=True),

    # a uniquely indexed column with index "ix_mytable_col2"
    Column('col2', Integer, index=True, unique=True),

    Column('col3', Integer),
    Column('col4', Integer),

    Column('col5', Integer),
    Column('col6', Integer),
    )

# place an index on col3, col4
Index('idx_col34', mytable.c.col3, mytable.c.col4)

How should we do it if we use the declarative ORM extension?

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, , primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32))
    b = Column(String(32))

I would like an index on column "a" and "b".

推荐答案

those are just Column objects, index=True flag works normally:

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32), index=True)
    b = Column(String(32), index=True)

if you'd like a composite index, again Table is present here as usual you just don't have to declare it, everything works the same (make sure you're on recent 0.6 or 0.7 for the declarative A.a wrapper to be interpreted as a Column after the class declaration is complete):

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32))
    b = Column(String(32))

Index('my_index', A.a, A.b)

In 0.7 the Index can be in the Table arguments too, which with declarative is via __table_args__:

class A(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'table_A'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    a = Column(String(32))
    b = Column(String(32))
    __table_args__ = (Index('my_index', "a", "b"), )

其他推荐答案

To complete @zzzeek's answer.

If you like to add a composite index with DESC and use the ORM declarative method you can do as follows.

Furthermore, I was struggling with the Functional Indexes documentation of SQLAlchemy, trying to figure out a how to substitute mytable.c.somecol.

from sqlalchemy import Index

Index('someindex', mytable.c.somecol.desc())

We can just use the model property and call .desc() on it:

from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy

db = SQLAlchemy()

class GpsReport(db.Model):
    __tablename__ = 'gps_report'

    id = db.Column(db.Integer, db.Sequence('gps_report_id_seq'), nullable=False, autoincrement=True, server_default=db.text("nextval('gps_report_id_seq'::regclass)"))

    timestamp = db.Column(db.DateTime, nullable=False, primary_key=True)

    device_id = db.Column(db.Integer, db.ForeignKey('device.id'), primary_key=True, autoincrement=False)
    device = db.relationship("Device", back_populates="gps_reports")


    # Indexes

    __table_args__ = (
        db.Index('gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx', timestamp.desc(), device_id),
    )

If you use Alembic, I'm using Flask-Migrate, it generates something like:

from alembic import op  
import sqlalchemy as sa
# Added manually this import
from sqlalchemy.schema import Sequence, CreateSequence


def upgrade():
    # ### commands auto generated by Alembic - please adjust! ###
    # Manually added the Sequence creation
    op.execute(CreateSequence(Sequence('gps_report_id_seq')))

    op.create_table('gps_report',
    sa.Column('id', sa.Integer(), server_default=sa.text("nextval('gps_report_id_seq'::regclass)"), nullable=False),
    sa.Column('timestamp', sa.DateTime(), nullable=False))
    sa.Column('device_id', sa.Integer(), autoincrement=False, nullable=False),
    op.create_index('gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx', 'gps_report', [sa.text('timestamp DESC'), 'device_id'], unique=False)


def downgrade():
    # ### commands auto generated by Alembic - please adjust! ###
    op.drop_index('gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx', table_name='gps_report')
    op.drop_table('gps_report')

    # Manually added the Sequence removal
    op.execute(sa.schema.DropSequence(sa.Sequence('gps_report_id_seq'))) 
    # ### end Alembic commands ###

Finally, you should have the following table and indexes in your PostgreSQL database:

psql> \d gps_report;
                                           Table "public.gps_report"
     Column      |            Type             | Collation | Nullable |                Default                 
-----------------+-----------------------------+-----------+----------+----------------------------------------
 id              | integer                     |           | not null | nextval('gps_report_id_seq'::regclass)
 timestamp       | timestamp without time zone |           | not null | 
 device_id       | integer                     |           | not null | 
Indexes:
    "gps_report_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree ("timestamp", device_id)
    "gps_report_timestamp_device_id_idx" btree ("timestamp" DESC, device_id)
Foreign-key constraints:
    "gps_report_device_id_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (device_id) REFERENCES device(id)