请用一个真实的例子帮助我理解 "装饰者模式"。[英] Please help me understand the "Decorator Pattern" with a real world example.

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问题描述

我正在研究 GOF 中记录的 装饰器模式.对我来说,这似乎是一个复杂的设计模式.

所以请帮我理解装饰器模式.有人可以举一个在现实世界中有用的用例示例吗?

推荐答案

装饰器模式实现了动态添加的单一目标对任何对象的责任.

考虑一个比萨店的案例.在比萨店,他们将出售几种比萨品种,并且他们还将在菜单中提供浇头.现在想象这样一种情况,如果比萨店必须为比萨饼和配料的每种组合提供价格.即使有四种基本的比萨饼和 8 种不同的浇头,应用程序也会疯狂地维护所有这些比萨饼和浇头的具体组合.

装饰器模式来了.

根据装饰器模式,您将实现浇头作为装饰器,而比萨饼将由这些浇头的装饰器装饰.实际上,每个顾客都想要他想要的浇头,最终的账单金额将由基础比萨饼和额外订购的浇头组成.每个浇头装饰师都会知道它正在装饰的比萨饼及其价格.Topping 对象的 GetPrice() 方法将返回披萨和浇头的累积价格.

编辑

这是上面解释的代码示例.

public abstract class BasePizza
{
    protected double myPrice;

    public virtual double GetPrice()
    {
        return this.myPrice;
    }
}

public abstract class ToppingsDecorator : BasePizza
{
    protected BasePizza pizza;
    public ToppingsDecorator(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.pizza = pizzaToDecorate;
    }

    public override double GetPrice()
    {
        return (this.pizza.GetPrice() + this.myPrice);
    }
}

class Program
{
    [STAThread]
    static void Main()
    {
        //Client-code
        Margherita pizza = new Margherita();
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita: " + pizza.GetPrice().ToString());

        ExtraCheeseTopping moreCheese = new ExtraCheeseTopping(pizza);
        ExtraCheeseTopping someMoreCheese = new ExtraCheeseTopping(moreCheese);
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita with double extra cheese: " + someMoreCheese.GetPrice().ToString());

        MushroomTopping moreMushroom = new MushroomTopping(someMoreCheese);
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita with double extra cheese with mushroom: " + moreMushroom.GetPrice().ToString());

        JalapenoTopping moreJalapeno = new JalapenoTopping(moreMushroom);
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita with double extra cheese with mushroom with Jalapeno: " + moreJalapeno.GetPrice().ToString());

        Console.ReadLine();
    }
}

public class Margherita : BasePizza
{
    public Margherita()
    {
        this.myPrice = 6.99;
    }
}

public class Gourmet : BasePizza
{
    public Gourmet()
    {
        this.myPrice = 7.49;
    }
}

public class ExtraCheeseTopping : ToppingsDecorator
{
    public ExtraCheeseTopping(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
        : base(pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.myPrice = 0.99;
    }
}

public class MushroomTopping : ToppingsDecorator
{
    public MushroomTopping(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
        : base(pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.myPrice = 1.49;
    }
}

public class JalapenoTopping : ToppingsDecorator
{
    public JalapenoTopping(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
        : base(pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.myPrice = 1.49;
    }
}

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问题描述

I was studying the Decorator Pattern as documented in GOF. It seems like a complicated design pattern to me.

So please, help me understand the Decorator Pattern. Could someone give a use-case example of where this is useful in the real world?

推荐答案

Decorator pattern achieves a single objective of dynamically adding responsibilities to any object.

Consider a case of a pizza shop. In the pizza shop they will sell few pizza varieties and they will also provide toppings in the menu. Now imagine a situation wherein if the pizza shop has to provide prices for each combination of pizza and topping. Even if there are four basic pizzas and 8 different toppings, the application would go crazy maintaining all these concrete combination of pizzas and toppings.

Here comes the decorator pattern.

As per the decorator pattern, you will implement toppings as decorators and pizzas will be decorated by those toppings' decorators. Practically each customer would want toppings of his desire and final bill-amount will be composed of the base pizzas and additionally ordered toppings. Each topping decorator would know about the pizzas that it is decorating and it's price. GetPrice() method of Topping object would return cumulative price of both pizza and the topping.

EDIT

Here's a code-example of explanation above.

public abstract class BasePizza
{
    protected double myPrice;

    public virtual double GetPrice()
    {
        return this.myPrice;
    }
}

public abstract class ToppingsDecorator : BasePizza
{
    protected BasePizza pizza;
    public ToppingsDecorator(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.pizza = pizzaToDecorate;
    }

    public override double GetPrice()
    {
        return (this.pizza.GetPrice() + this.myPrice);
    }
}

class Program
{
    [STAThread]
    static void Main()
    {
        //Client-code
        Margherita pizza = new Margherita();
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita: " + pizza.GetPrice().ToString());

        ExtraCheeseTopping moreCheese = new ExtraCheeseTopping(pizza);
        ExtraCheeseTopping someMoreCheese = new ExtraCheeseTopping(moreCheese);
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita with double extra cheese: " + someMoreCheese.GetPrice().ToString());

        MushroomTopping moreMushroom = new MushroomTopping(someMoreCheese);
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita with double extra cheese with mushroom: " + moreMushroom.GetPrice().ToString());

        JalapenoTopping moreJalapeno = new JalapenoTopping(moreMushroom);
        Console.WriteLine("Plain Margherita with double extra cheese with mushroom with Jalapeno: " + moreJalapeno.GetPrice().ToString());

        Console.ReadLine();
    }
}

public class Margherita : BasePizza
{
    public Margherita()
    {
        this.myPrice = 6.99;
    }
}

public class Gourmet : BasePizza
{
    public Gourmet()
    {
        this.myPrice = 7.49;
    }
}

public class ExtraCheeseTopping : ToppingsDecorator
{
    public ExtraCheeseTopping(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
        : base(pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.myPrice = 0.99;
    }
}

public class MushroomTopping : ToppingsDecorator
{
    public MushroomTopping(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
        : base(pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.myPrice = 1.49;
    }
}

public class JalapenoTopping : ToppingsDecorator
{
    public JalapenoTopping(BasePizza pizzaToDecorate)
        : base(pizzaToDecorate)
    {
        this.myPrice = 1.49;
    }
}